Q
What are the common CNC lathes?
A

lathe


What are the CNC lathes?

CNC lathes can be divided into horizontal and vertical types. Horizontal lathes are available in both horizontal and inclined rails. High-grade CNC sleepers generally use inclined rails. According to the number of tool holders, it can be divided into single tool holder CNC lathe and double tool holder CNC. The former is two-coordinate control and the latter is 4-coordinate control. Most of the double-turret sleepers use inclined rails.

Like ordinary lathes, CNC lathes are also used to machine the rotating surface of parts. Generally, it can automatically complete the machining of the outer cylindrical surface, the conical surface, the spherical surface and the thread, and can also process some complex rotating surfaces, such as hyperboloids. The workpiece mounting methods of the CNC lathe and the ordinary lathe are basically the same. In order to improve the processing efficiency, the hydraulic lathes are mostly hydraulic, pneumatic and electric chucks.

The shape of a CNC lathe is similar to that of a conventional lathe, that is, it consists of a bed, a headstock, a tool holder, a feed system pressure system, a cooling and lubrication system. The feeding system of the CNC lathe is qualitatively different from the ordinary lathe. The conventional lathe has a feed box and an exchange carrier. The CNC lathe directly uses the servo motor to drive the slide and the tool holder through the ball screw to realize the feed motion. The structure of the feed system is greatly simplified.

CNC lathes are available in a wide variety of sizes and specifications. They can be classified as follows.


Press the spindle position of the lathe

(1) Vertical CNC Lathe The vertical CNC lathe is referred to as the CNC vertical lathe. The lathe spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, and a circular table with a large diameter is used to clamp the workpiece. This type of machine tool is mainly used to machine large and complex parts with large radial dimensions and relatively small axial dimensions.

(2) Horizontal CNC Lathe Horizontal CNC lathe is divided into CNC horizontal guide horizontal lathe and CNC inclined guide horizontal lathe. Its inclined rail structure allows the lathe to be more rigid and easy to remove chips.


By machined parts

(1) Chuck type CNC lathes These lathes have no tailstock and are suitable for turning discs (including short shafts). Most of the clamping methods are electric or hydraulic control, and the chuck structure has many adjustable jaws or non-quenching jaws (ie, soft jaws).

(2) Top CNC Lathes These lathes are equipped with a common tailstock or CNC tailstock, which is suitable for turning long parts and disc parts with a small diameter.


Number of tool holders

(1) Single-turret CNC lathes CNC lathes are generally equipped with various types of single-tool holders, such as four-station horizontal translation tool holders or multi-station turret automatic indexing tool holders.

(2) Double tool holder CNC lathe The double tool holders of such lathes are arranged in parallel or perpendicular to each other.


By function

(1) The economical CNC lathe adopts stepping motor and single-chip microcomputer to transform the feeding system of ordinary lathe into a simple CNC lathe, which has lower cost, but the degree of automation and function are relatively poor, and the precision of turning machining is not high. Suitable for turning machining of less demanding rotary parts.

(2) Ordinary CNC lathes are designed according to the requirements of turning machining. The CNC lathe is specially designed and equipped with a universal numerical control system. The numerical control system has strong functions, high degree of automation and machining accuracy, and is suitable for turning machining of general rotary parts. . This CNC lathe can control two axes at the same time, namely the X axis and the Z axis.

(3) The turning machining center adds C axis and power head on the basis of ordinary CNC lathe. The more advanced CNC lathe has a tool magazine, which can control three coordinate axes of X, Z and C. The linkage control axis can be ( X, Z), (X, C) or (Z, C). Thanks to the addition of the C-axis and the milling power head, the machining function of this CNC lathe is greatly enhanced. In addition to general turning, radial and axial milling, surface milling, and center holes are not in the center of the part. Drilling and other processing,


Other classification methods

According to different control modes of CNC system, CNC lathe can be divided into many types, such as linear control CNC lathe, two spindle control CNC lathe, etc.; according to special or special process performance can be divided into thread CNC lathe, piston CNC lathe, crankshaft CNC lathe And so on.

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